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Ze Stomach Fat ((HOT))



(M1.GI.13.174) A 45-year-old male patient with a history of recurrent nephrolithiasis and chronic lower back pain presents to the ER with severe, sudden-onset, upper abdominal pain. The patient is febrile, hypotensive, and tachycardic, and is rushed to the OR for exploratory laporotomy. Surgery reveals that the patient has a perforated gastric ulcer. Despite appropriate therapy, the patient expires, and subsequent autopsy reveals multiple ulcers in the stomach, duodenum, and jejunum. The patient had been complaining of abdominal pain and diarrhea for several months but had only been taking ibuprofen for his lower back pain for the past 3 weeks. What is the most likely cause of the patient's presentation?




ze Stomach Fat



While people often refer to symptoms like nausea, cramping, vomiting and diarrhea as the stomach flu or a stomach bug, the official term is gastroenteritis. Gastroenteritis is inflammation of the stomach and intestines, often caused by different viruses. When the stomach flu strikes, food might be the last thing on your mind. But choosing the right foods and fluids can settle a queasy tummy and help speed your recovery.


JW: Between nausea, vomiting and diarrhea, the stomach flu can cause you to lose lots of nutrients and fluids quickly. This can lead to dehydration, making you feel lethargic, or giving you a headache and making you feel even worse. By rehydrating with the right fluids and choosing the best foods for stomach flu recovery, you can replenish those losses and recover faster.Infographic: How to identify signs of dehydration


JW: Start with small sips of simple fluids like water, unsweetened hot or iced tea, coconut water or an oral rehydration solution like Pedialyte. When choosing an oral rehydration solution, look for one that contains sodium, potassium, and chloride, which are the main electrolytes lost through vomiting and diarrhea. Because these electrolytes help the brain send signals to muscles and nerves, replacing them along with lost fluids can help you feel better faster. Pedialyte has an optimal balance of sugar and electrolytes to combat dehydration during the stomach flu.


JW: This can be hard, because when you're feeling sick, sometimes the last thing you want to think about is eating. But eating can help replenish your energy and what you've lost. The best foods for stomach flu recovery are the ones that can provide your body with what it's missing and are easy to digest during recovery.


JW: Too much sugar pulls excess water into the gut, which can make diarrhea worse, so avoid sugary foods and drinks like cookies, soda, juice and sports drinks. Foods that are high in fat or fiber can be difficult to digest, and spicy foods can be very irritating to your digestive system, so I'd steer clear of those until you're back on your feet. Because the body loses important calories and nutrients via diarrhea and vomiting, eating healthy foods and rehydrating is key to recovery from the stomach flu.


The syndrome is caused by a gastrinoma, a neuroendocrine tumor that secretes a hormone called gastrin.[2] Too much gastrin in the blood (hypergastrinemia) results in the overproduction of gastric acid by parietal cells in the stomach. Gastrinomas most commonly arise in the duodenum, pancreas or stomach.[citation needed]


Poria is the dried sclerotium of Poria cocos (Schw.) Wolf, which has the effect of diuresis and detumescence, spleen invigorating and stomach protection, nourishing and sedative. The main components are pachyman, pachymic acid, proteins, ergosterols and inorganic salts [31, 32]. Triterpenes and polysaccharides are the ingredients which have the pharmacological effects include regulating immunity, anti-inflammation, anti-oxidation, anti-tumor, liver protection and etc. [67].


Some research suggests that infection of the stomach with the ulcer-causing bacteria Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) or infection with Hepatitis B may increase the risk of getting pancreatic cancer. More studies are needed.


Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (ZES) is characterized by the development of a tumor (gastrinoma) or tumors that secrete excessive levels of gastrin, a hormone that stimulates production of acid by the stomach. Many affected individuals develop multiple gastrinomas, which are thought to have the potential to be cancerous (malignant). In most patients, the tumors arise within the pancreas and/or the upper region of the small intestine (duodenum). Due to excessive acid production (gastric acid hypersecretion), individuals with ZES may develop peptic ulcers of the stomach, the duodenum, and/or other regions of the digestive tract. Peptic ulcers are sores or raw areas within the digestive tract where the lining has been eroded by stomach acid and digestive juices. Symptoms and findings associated with ZES may include mild to severe abdominal pain; diarrhea; increased amounts of fat in the stools (steatorrhea); and/or other abnormalities. In most affected individuals, ZES appears to develop randomly (sporadically) for unknown reasons. In approximately 25 percent of patients, ZES occurs in association with a genetic syndrome known as multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN-1). All of the tumors are considered to have malignant potential. Prognosis is related to tumor size and the presence of distant metastases.


However, in some patients, symptoms associated with peptic ulcers may be more severe, persistent, and progressive and may be associated with potentially life-threatening complications, such as bleeding, perforation, or intestinal obstruction. Bleeding from peptic ulcers may result in vomiting of blood and/or the passage of blood in the stools. In some patients, ulcers may penetrate the wall of the digestive tract, creating an abnormal opening (perforation) into the abdominal cavity. Associated symptoms may include severe, persistent, piercing pain in the abdominal area; inflammation of the abdominal lining (peritonitis); and/or other symptoms and findings. In addition, inflammation and scarring from chronic ulceration may narrow the outlet from the stomach to the duodenum (pyloric stenosis), causing obstruction, a feeling of early fullness, lack of appetite, pain, vomiting, and/or other associated abnormalities. Such complications are considered medical emergencies that require immediate treatment.


Pancreatic gastrinoma survival fairs well when compared to other pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs). It has been reported that between histologic subtypes, there were significant differences in sex and age, and in tumor size, grade, location, and stage. Median survival time for insulinomas was 12.7 years; gastrinomas, 10.2 years; glucagonomas, 7.7 years; VIPomas, 7.9 years; and mixed tumors, 3.4 years. Multivariate analysis has shown that histology (insulinoma, gastrinoma, and VIPoma; p = .009), absence of distant metastases (p = .002), age


Initial treatment commonly includes the use of certain medications called proton pump inhibitors, such as omeprazole. Such medications may reduce stomach acid production, relieve symptoms, and promote ulcer healing. In some patients, another type of acid-suppressing medication called H2 blockers may also be used, such as cimetidine or ranitidine.


2. Casein is a protein derived from milk products. It is used primarily by athletes to increase muscle mass and strength, control appetite, aid in weight loss, improve endurance, and boost energy levels. It provides all of the amino acids necessary for growth (Delbeke et al. 2002). Casein protein forms a gel in the stomach, which allows it to be digested more slowly so the peptides/amino acids are absorbed steadily over a long period of time, unlike whey protein, which is absorbed very quickly (Sulcová et al. 2005).


1. Chitosan is a non-digestible fiber extracted from the shells of crabs, lobsters, and other crustaceans. It is prepared in supplement form for products as Chitosan-C and Chitorich (Galitzky et al. 2012). It is an effective fat binder; it enters the body, binds to the fat in the food, and keeps it from being absorbed by the body (Zenk et al. 2012). There are two downsides to this method. First, fat blockers can prevent the body from absorbing nutrients it needs. Second, this bound fat still needs to leave the body, which it often does in the form of stomach pain, unpleasant anal leakage, and diarrhea. Chitosan is recommended for reducing lowering cholesterol levels and promoting weight loss (Pooyandjoo et al. 2016; Vincent et al. 2003).


Protein has powerful appetite suppressing effects, especially compared to the other macronutrients. Its appetite-suppressing qualities come from the fact that protein stimulates the release of cholecystokinin (CCK) from the stomach cells. This hormone then travels through the bloodstream to the hypothalamus in the brain where it tells the brain that the stomach is full (Whingham et al. 2007).


Jejunostomy tube feeding is a way to feed you through a tube placed into part of your small intestine called the jejunum. To place the tube into the jejunum, a doctor creates an opening, called a jejunostomy, in your abdominal wall that goes into your jejunum. The feeding tube bypasses your stomach and delivers a liquid food directly into your jejunum.


Your doctor may recommend a venting gastrostomy to relieve pressure inside your stomach. A doctor creates an opening, called a gastrostomy, in your abdominal wall and into your stomach. The doctor then places a tube through the gastrostomy into your stomach. Stomach contents can then flow out of the tube and relieve pressure inside your stomach.


Gastric electrical stimulation (GES) uses a small, battery-powered device to send mild electrical pulses to the nerves and muscles in the lower stomach. A surgeon puts the device under the skin in your lower abdomen and attaches wires from the device to the muscles in the wall of your stomach. GES can help decrease long-term nausea and vomiting. 041b061a72


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